The Leiden Manifesto, published in Nature on April 23, 2015, was developed by Diana Hicks, professor of public policy at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlantia, Georgia, USA; Peter Wouters, professor of scientometrics; Ludo Waltman, researcher; Sarah de Rijcke, assistant professor at the Centre for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University, the Netherlands; and Ismael Rafols, science-policy researcher at the Spanish National Research Council and the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain.
The 10 principles of the Leiden Manifesto about evaluating research are (in outline):
1. Quantitative evaluation should support qualitative, expert assessment
2. Measure performance against the research missions of the institution, group, or researcher.
3. Protect excellence in locally relevant research.
4. Keep data collection and analytical processes open, transparent, and simple.
5. Allow those evaluated to verify data and analysis.
6. Account for variation by field in publication and citation practices.
7. Base assessment of individual researchers on qualitative judgement of their portfolio.
8. Avoid misplaced concreteness and false precision.
9. Recognize the systemic effects of assessment and indicators.
10. Scrutinize indicators regularly and update them.